16 INTEGRANTES

GRUPLAC

DESCRIPCIÓN 

El grupo está integrado por profesionales con formación en doctorado y maestría y una amplia experiencia en las áreas de nutrición vegetal, manejo de suelos y aguas, protección de cultivos, ecofisiología, fitomejoramiento, agronegocios, agroforestería y mercadeo agrícola. Tanto a nivel nacional como internacional existen una serie de recomendaciones de manejo integrado de plagas, muchas de ellas no evaluadas en especies vegetales de importancia económica de clima frio, estas recomendaciones se aplican a menudo y se recomiendan a los cultivadores, sin el éxito deseado, dando pie a la utilización indiscriminada de productos químicos antes de poder emplear en forma exitosa cualquier manejo establecido bajo condiciones climáticas diferentes, estas deben evaluarse igualmente, el desconocimiento de antagonistas, depredadores y parasitoides nativos, dificulta e inhibe su utilización y producción masiva. Estos conocimientos permiten el monitoreo de la resistencia y el establecimientos de planes de manejo de los cultivares transgénicos.

PRODUCTOS DESTACADOS

Vallissiana universitaria (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): a new genus and species of leaf-mining moth associated with Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae) in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil
Fecha de publicación: 01/05/2019

Vallissiana universitaria Pereira & Arévalo, a new genus and species of leaf-miner moth (Gracillariidae: Gracillariinae) is described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy, including adults, larva, pupa and the mine. Its monophyletic status is confirmed within the subfamily based on a DNA barcode CoItree. The immature stages are associated with Erythroxylum argentinum O. E. Schulz (Erythroxylaceae) and four larval instars are found, all forming a round blotch mine from the beginning of ontogeny. The first two instars are sap-feeders, using only the epidermal cells, whereas the last two are tissue-feeders, mining the parenchyma cells. Pupation occurs inside the leaf mine within a flimsy, silk-made cocoon. This is the third endemic genus of gracillariid moths described from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil and the first associated with Erythroxylum P. BrowneCharacteristics found on the forewing and in the last abdominal segments of the adult were determinant for the proposition of the new genus. The CoI tree indicated that it is closely related to Aspilapteryx, while this genus was recovered as polyphyletic in the analyses. Morphological evidence supports this polyphyly. Consequently, Sabulopteryx Triberti, 1985, stat. nov. is considered a valid genus.


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Toxicity evaluation of two insecticides on Tetragonisca angustula and Scaptotrigona xanthotricha (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
Fecha de publicación: 31/12/2017

Stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini) have crucial roles in the ecosystem, offering pollination service and contributing to genetic diversity of species, and also providing honey and wax to humankind. Tetragonisca angustula and Scaptotrigona xanthotricha are species that have been used since ancient times for beekeeping. Currently these and other species have been exposed to agronomic practices, among which the use of synthetic pesticides used for crop protection stands out. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the insecticides thiamethoxam and fipronil, which are used in agriculture in several countries in the tropical and subtropical belt in order to establish the risk that these products represent to the survival of these two species. The oral and topical LD50 was obtained by Probit analysis. Comparisons with the LD50s of other stingless bees and Apis mellifera were realized. Although further studies are required to calculate the real risk of the two compounds, the results showed an evident susceptibility of both species. We concluded that it is essential to use tools and practices that reduce the risk, and perform toxicological evaluations of new and existing pesticides on stingless bees.


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Technical and administrative characterization of small-holder milk production systems in a central region of Colombia
Fecha de publicación: 30/07/2018

The objective of this work was to carry out the technical-administrative characterization of smallholder of milk production systems located in the village of El Peñón, in the town of Sibaté/Colombia. The study was carried out during the months of November/2016 to April/2017. The information was obtained through semi-structured interviews with 18 producers. For the identification of the systems, technical-productive variables were investigated and the characterization included the analysis of components: a) Location, biophysical aspects, landscape, use and land management; b) Forage resources and food; c) Animal resources; d) Reproduction and health; e) Milk production, livestock marketing and business management; f) Handing, infrastructure and equipment; and g) Owner information. A cluster analysis and multiple correspondences analysis using the statistical package SAS (Statistical analysis system, version 9.4). The results of the cluster analysis were shown the conformation of 8 groups classified as: specialized dairy, semispecialized, smallholder and small farm given to heterogeneity of the productive model. Five smallholder systems were identified, the analysis of multiple correspondences showed a relationship between qualitative variables and components evidencing a technological model based on a semi-intensive production with adequate infrastructure and acquisition of low cost technology with low validated feeding strategies. The use of low genetic quality animal resources with reduced implementation of breeding programs and reproductive biotechnologies and healthy plans and the lack of practices of animal welfare and good milking practices. Additionally, limited marketing networks and business management strategies. In conclusion, the systems are developed in heterogeneous conditions, which is due to the formulation of different production models. The characterization of smallholder systems is necessary to identify technological recommendations and the intervention of policies for the improvement and strengthening of productive systems


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Soils and land use in the study of soil organic carbon in Colombian highlands catena
Fecha de publicación: 01/05/2019

Andean highland ecosystems (known as paramos) have a great potential to store water and organic carbon, which fulfill the inherent functions associated to the regulation of carbon and water cycles, characteristics linked to their parent material (volcanic ash). However, paramos are at high risk of degradation associated with land use dynamics that affect organic carbon quality in the surface soil.
Changes in vegetation cover, with transition from natural forest to tillage and then pasture, make the soil vulnerable to degradation by compaction, erosion, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with increased anthropogenic activity. Despite this cover change, information on soil carbon dynamics in paramos is scarce, impeding conservation management strategies in these ecosystems. This study evaluates the impact of different soil uses within a transect in the Guerrero paramo estimated from soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in the upper meter and carbon condition (expressed as stratification ratio, SR) in the surface soil. Carbon storage varied from 165.2 to 721.9 t ha −1 in the upper meter of soil with SR 1 (0–10/10–20cm) between 0.92 and 2.01 and SR 2 (0–10/20–30cm) between 0.99 and 2.05. Results of this study highlighted that in the fragile ecosystems than Andean paramos, the geomorphological position in relation to soil uses and management practices conditioned soil carbon availability, affecting pedogenetic processes. SR of SOC associated to anthropogenic intervention activities it does not indicate by itself C sequestration. In future researches it is necessary include additional parameters than net primary productivity and historic vegetation

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SISTEMAS DE INFORMACIÓN GEOGRÁFICA (SIG) EN LA INVESTIGACIÓN DE MERCADOS PARA EXPORTACIONES DE PAPA CRIOLLA COLOMBIANA HACIA ESTADOS UNIDOS
Fecha de publicación: 30/06/2015

El sector agrícola colombiano desconoce la demanda de la papa criolla en los mercados internacionales, como consecuencia de la insuficiente investigación de mercados. En la última década, el gobierno de Colombia ha generado interés en la apertura de mercados internacionales y en la consecución de oportunidades de negocio, para productos agrícolas. Mediante la utilización de los sistemas de información geográfica (SIG), en el estado de la Florida, se evaluó la ubicación geográfica óptima, rentable y sostenible, para analizar la factibilidad comercial de la papa criolla. Mediante esta herramienta, la investigación generó un panorama metodológico de evaluación en la toma de decisión gerencial, con relación a obtener un beneficio en la cadena productiva. El geomarketing ayuda a las empresas en la planeación de políticas de mercadeo, la toma de decisiones y la ejecución de planes exportadores más competitivos en el mercado externo. Mediante un trabajo de campo de la cadena productiva de la papa criolla, en el municipio de Usme, Cundinamarca, integrada por los productores y comercializadores, se diagnosticó el sector, identificando debilidades comerciales. La información obtenida por instituciones gubernamentales americanas, como la Oficina del Censo, agrupó una serie de datos basados en la auto-identificación de la población y puntos focales de distribución y de comercialización del producto, evaluando la probabilidad de implementar planes exportadores en mercados nostálgicos geo-referenciados. Los resultados encontrados permiten analizar información relacionada con la planificación y la ejecución de las actividades de marketing, para fortalecer la toma de decisiones empresariales, a un nivel competitivo en los micromercados


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