El grupo de investigación Sostenibilidad Ambiental a través de estudios disciplinares, multi, inter y trans disciplinares, respetando los modos y técnicas propias de cada una de las disciplinas relevantes busca contribuir a la sostenibilidad ambiental mediante el estudio de las interacciones entre la biodiversidad y la sociedad y la búsqueda de soluciones que contribuyan a la conservación y manejo integral del socioecosistema aportando al entendimiento del ambiente como sistema complejo.
Linking biodiversity, ecosystem services, and beneficiaries of tropical dry forests of Latin America: Review and new perspectives
We conducted a systematic literature review to identify and analyze research linking biodiversity, ecosystem services and their beneficiaries in tropical dry forests of Latin America. By assessing 71 studies published in the last 20 years, we addressed two questions: i) when research on links between biodiversity, ecosystem services and beneficiaries began and which of these links have been addressed the most? ii) how these links were addressed? Research on links began in 1997. Studies have been carried out mostly on a local scale and lasted for one year or more. Links between biodiversity and ecosystem services were the most frequently addressed (24% of total studies) considering biodiversity as a regulator of ecosystem processes. Plants and mammals’ abundance and richness were mainly linked with regulating and provisioning services. While these links have started to be addressed, only five studies actually linked the three components. It is necessary to redirect efforts towards studies effectively linking ecosystem services and beneficiaries, a link that still remains scarcely addressed. The current challenge for research is to incorporate the beneficiaries into the study of ecosystem services in tropical dry forests of Latin America and fill the information gaps by promoting long-term studies at larger spatial scales
Las aves de la Sabana de Bogotá. Cambios revelados por monitoreos a largo plazo” Biodiversidad 2017. Estado y tendencias de la biodiversidad continental de Colombia
La gestión adecuada de la biodiversidad y los servicios que brinda en áreas urbanas y periurbanas requiere de información como insumo para la planeación. El monitoreo de poblaciones de especies realizado de forma periódica y a largo plazo no solo ofrece información sobre la presencia de especies en un lugar y momento, también revela tendencias poblacionales, lo que permite evidenciar distintos factores que están afectando dichas áreas.
Evaluación in vitro de la capacidad biorremediadora de hongos filamentosos sobre petróleo crudo
Objetivo. Evaluar la capacidad biorremediadora de algunas especies de hongos filamentosos en suelos contaminados con petróleo crudo. Métodos. Se aislaron 138 cepas a partir de 90 cultivos primarios en muestras de suelos obtenidas en los municipios de Yondó (Antioquia), Acacías (Meta) y Tumaco (Nariño), se identificaron las especies por medio de claves taxonómicas y la amplificación por PCR de la región ITS ubicándose en siete géneros de hongos filamentosos. Del total de las especies se escogieron tres para el experimento que fueron: Neosartorya sp. Cepa A/N-1, Aspergillus sp. Cepa Y/As-3 y Rhizomucor sp. Cepa 1A/R-1; se realizó la micorremediación con la técnica de Landfarming modificado al diseñarse un microcosmos con 50g de suelo contaminado con petróleo crudo °API de 21.6 a concentraciones de 20.000 ppm y 30.000ppm
para cada una de las especies en un inóculo de 300 conidios/ml en agua destilada, ajustado en cámara de Neubauer y las tres especies en consorcio en suelo contaminado con petróleo crudo °API de 21.6 a concentraciones de 40.000ppm, 60.000ppm, 80.000ppm y 100.000ppm con un inóculo de 300 conidios/ml. Se valoró el proceso por espectofotometría. Además se estableció las enzimas empleadas en la micorremediación y la citotoxicidad de las cepas empleadas. Resultado. La micorremediación realizada por las especies individuales fue en promedio entre 2 y 6 días y cuando se aplicaron las tres especies en consorcio se realizó en un promedio entre 6 y 10 días, la
enzima empleada es peroxidasa y la citotoxicidad es negativa.
Changes over 26 years in the avifauna of the Bogotá region, Colombia: Has climate change become important?
High Neotropical mountains are among the most threatened ecosystems by climate change and this problem could be accentuated in cities where temperatures are higher. However, there are few data of long-term avifaunal changes in Neotropical cities, and the potential impact of climate change has yet to be addressed. Using data from 26 years of Audubon’s Christmas Bird Counts (CBCs) in the Bogotá area (ca. 2,600-3,100 m in Colombia’s eastern Andes), we analyze long-term changes of the avifauna using linear regressions corrected for species’ habitat preferences and compared urban and rural sites. For the CBC we followed the National Audubon Society’s methodology in which birds are counted over a 24-h period within a fixed circle 24 km in diameter. We recorded 235 species in the Bogotá circle with an average of 122 spp/year, including 46 boreal migrants, three endemic species, and four endemic subspecies, two globally and four locally threatened species. Species richness was higher in rural than in urban areas and most species were associated with native forest and scrub and wetlands. Among the species that were analyzed for changes in time 31% increased, 20% decreased, and 49% did not change. Strong fluctuations or changes in abundance were more frequent in urban than rural environments. Many of the species that increased or became established during the CBC interval came from lower elevations or the warmer, drier parts of the region beyond the count circle. By contrast, the lower elevational limits moved to higher elevations in several species that decreased. Climate change with its related effects represented the factor associated with the most changes in abundance. Other potential causes were direct human actions, mostly associated with urbanization, and “natural” successional changes in vegetation; predation by feral dogs and cowbird parasitism also affected several species negatively. Observations indicate that these factors will continue into the future, and the effects of climate change and urbanization in particular will probably intensify. The Bogotá CBC has provided much valuable information for Neotropical urban ornithology and its practice should be encouraged in other Latin American cities and should definitely continue in Bogotá for many years to come. © 2017 Stiles, Rosselli and De La Zerda.
Changes in the avifauna in a high Andean cloud forest in Colombia over a 24-year period
The upper altitude ecosystems of the Andes are among the most threatened by climate change. Computer models suggest that a large percentage of species in these ecosystems will be at risk of extinction and that avian communities will suffer disruption and impoverishment. Studies in other Andean countries lend some support to these predictions, but there are no quantitative data from Colombia appropriate to test these models. In 1991–1992, we conducted a bird survey in a high Andean cloud forest to gather information about the species present and their abundance. We attempted to replicate this earlier study 24 yr later to detect any changes in the avifauna and determine possible causes for those changes. From June 2015 to May 2016, we made bimonthly trips to the study site and identified all birds detected either visually or by voice along a number of trails. We supplemented our observational data by also capturing birds in mist-nets. Community species richness and composition as well as the overall abundance of birds changed little from 1991–1992 to 2015–2016, but nearly 30% of bird species changed in abundance. Changes in the presence or abundance of nine or 10 species reflected upward shifts in elevational limits potentially due to climate change. However, most changes in abundance appeared to reflect changes in the vegetation of the study area due to successional changes in forest and subparamo habitats and a large number of relatively recent treefalls of old canopy trees with heavy epiphyte loads and subsequent changes in the understory vegetation. Our results suggest that the effects of climate change on the avifauna in our study area at a high-altitude site in Colombia are apparently occurring more slowly than predicted by recent computer models, although we conclude that the possible effects of climate change should definitely be considered in future studies. However, single-site studies such as ours have limitations in documenting elevation shifts; the most conclusive and quantitative evidence for elevational shifts comes from long-term studies conducted over a wide range of elevations. As such, we recommend establishment of such a monitoring program in Colombia because data obtained from such a program might be important in designing measures to mitigate the effects of climate change and conserve biodiversity. © 2017 Association of Field Ornithologists