Carolina Cardona Ramírez

LÍNEAS DE INVESTIGACIÓN:   Ciencias Médicas - Metabolismo del Nitrógeno - Biotecnología - Ciencias Ómicas - Errores Innatos del Metabolismo

FACULTAD:  Ciencias de la Salud



Licenciada en Biología y Química, realizó una maestría en química avanzada, preparación y caracterización de materiales y reactivos en la Universidad de Malaga en España; doctora en ciencias bioquímicas. sus líneas de investigación están orientadas en las ciencias médicas, en la biotecnología y ciencias ómicas. Ha participados en varios proyectos como, el análisis de la expresión de IDS mediante aproximaciones neuroquímicas y proteómicas, en la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; encabeza uno de los proyectos de investigación de la Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales, titulado «Polimorfismo Inserción /Deleción, del gen ACE en atletas de élite Colombianos en deportes de resistencia»


Production and characterization of a human lysosomal recombinant iduronate‐2‐sulfatase produced in Pichia pastoris
Fecha de publicación: 06/04/2018

Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis II, MPS II) is an X‐linked lysosomal storage disease produced by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate‐2‐sulfatase (IDS). Currently, MPS II patients are mainly treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using recombinant enzymes produced in mammalian cells. As an alternative, several studies have shown the production of active and therapeutic forms of lysosomal proteins in microorganisms. In this paper, we report the production and characterization of a recombinant IDS produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris (prIDS). We evaluated the effect of culture conditions and gene sequence optimization on prIDS production. The results showed that the highest production of prIDS was obtained at oxygen‐limited conditions using a codon‐optimized IDS cDNA. The purified enzyme showed a final activity of 12.45 nmol mg−1 H−1 and an apparent molecular mass of about 90 kDa. The highest stability was achieved at pH 6.0, and prIDS also showed high stability in human serum. Noteworthy, the enzyme was taken up by culture cells in a dose‐dependent manner through mannose receptors, which allowed the delivery of the enzyme to the lysosome. In summary, these results show the potential of Pichia pastoris as a host to produce an IDS intended for a MPS II ERT.

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Improvement in the production of the human recombinant enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (rhGALNS) in Escherichia coli using synthetic biology approaches
Fecha de publicación: 09/07/2017

Previously, we demonstrated production of an active recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (rhGALNS) enzyme in Escherichia coli as a potential therapeutic alternative for mucopolysaccharidosis IVA. However, most of the rhGALNS produced was present as protein aggregates. Here, several methods were investigated to improve production and activity of rhGALNS. These methods involved the use of physiologically-regulated promoters and alternatives to improve protein folding including global stress responses (osmotic shock), overexpression of native chaperones, and enhancement of cytoplasmic disulfide bond formation. Increase of rhGALNS activity was obtained when a promoter regulated under σ s was implemented. Additionally, improvements were observed when osmotic shock was applied. Noteworthy, overexpression of chaperones did not have any effect on rhGALNS activity, suggesting that the effect of osmotic shock was probably due to a general stress response and not to the action of an individual chaperone. Finally, it was observed that high concentrations of sucrose in conjunction with the physiological-regulated promoter proU mod significantly increased the rhGALNS production and activity. Together, these results describe advances in the current knowledge on the production of human recombinant enzymes in a prokaryotic system such as E. coli, and could have a significant impact on the development of enzyme replacement therapies for lysosomal storage diseases.

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Identification of the iduronate-2-sulfatase proteome in wild-type mouse brain
Fecha de publicación: 01/05/2019

Iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) is a lysosomal enzyme involved in the metabolism of the glycosaminoglycans heparan (HS) and dermatan (DS) sulfate. Mutations on IDS gene produce mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II), characterized by the lysosomal accumulation of HS and DS, leading to severe damage of the central nervous system (CNS) and other tissues. In this study, we used a neurochemistry and proteomic approaches to identify the brain distribution of IDS and its interacting proteins on wild-type mouse brain. IDS immunoreactivity showed a robust staining throughout the entire brain, suggesting an intracellular reactivity in nerve cells and astrocytes. By using affinity purification and mass spectrometry we identified 187 putative IDS partners-proteins, mainly hydrolases, cytoskeletal proteins, transporters, transferases, oxidoreductases, nucleic acid binding proteins, membrane traffic proteins, chaperons and enzyme modulators, among others. The interactions with some of these proteins were predicted by using bioinformatics tools and confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis and Blue Native PAGE. In addition, we identified cytosolic IDS-complexes containing proteins from predicted highly connected nodes (hubs), with molecular functions including catalytic activity, redox balance, binding, transport, receptor activity and structural molecule activity. The proteins identified in this study would provide new insights about IDS physiological role into the CNS and its potential role in the brain-specific protein networks.

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Glutaminase and MMP-9 Downregulation in Cortex and Hippocampus of LPA1 Receptor Null Mice Correlate with Altered Dendritic Spine Plasticity
Fecha de publicación: 05/09/2017

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator that regulates nervous system development and functions acting through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here we explore the crosstalk between LPA1 receptor and glutamatergic transmission by examining expression of glutaminase (GA) isoforms in different brain areas isolated from wild-type (WT) and KOLPA1 mice. Silencing of LPA1 receptor induced a severe down-regulation of Gls-encoded long glutaminase protein variant (KGA) (glutaminase gene encoding the kidney-type isoforms, GLS) protein expression in several brain regions, particularly in brain cortex and hippocampus. Immunohistochemical assessment of protein levels for the second type of glutaminase (GA) isoform, glutaminase gene encoding the liver-type isoforms (GLS2), did not detect substantial differences with regard to WT animals. The regional mRNA levels of GLS were determined by real time RT-PCR and did not show significant variations, except for prefrontal and motor cortex values which clearly diminished in KO mice. Total GA activity was also significantly reduced in prefrontal and motor cortex, but remained essentially unchanged in the hippocampus and rest of brain regions examined, suggesting activation of genetic compensatory mechanisms and/or post-translational modifications to compensate for KGA protein deficit. Remarkably, Golgi staining of hippocampal regions showed an altered morphology of glutamatergic pyramidal cells dendritic spines towards a less mature filopodia-like phenotype, as compared with WT littermates. This structural change correlated with a strong decrease of active matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of KOLPA1 mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that LPA signaling through LPA1 influence expression of the main isoenzyme of glutamate biosynthesis with strong repercussions on dendritic spines maturation, which may partially explain the cognitive and learning defects previously reported for this colony of KOLPA1 mice.

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